Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Incident Diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE Plant-based dietary patterns emphasize plant foods and minimize animal-derived foods. We investigated the association between plant-based dietary patterns and diabetes in a community-based U.S. sample of Black and White adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We included middle-aged adults from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study without diabetes at baseline who completed a food-frequency questionnaire (n = 11,965). We scored plant-based diet adherence according to three indices: overall, healthy, and unhealthy plant-based diet indices. Higher overall plant-based diet index (PDI) scores represent greater intakes of all plant foods and lower intakes of animal-derived foods. Higher healthy plant-based diet index (hPDI) scores represent greater healthy plant food intake and lower intakes of animal-derived and unhealthy plant foods. Higher unhealthy plant-based diet index (uPDI) scores represent greater unhealthy plant food intake and lower intakes of animal-derived and healthy plant foods. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes (defined according to self-reported diagnosis, medication use, or elevated blood glucose) associated with each index. RESULTS Over a median follow-up of 22 years, we identified 4,208 cases of diabetes among subjects. Higher PDI scores were associated with a lower risk of diabetes (quintile 5 vs. 1 HR 0.89 [95% CI 0.80, 0.98]; Ptrend = 0.01). hPDI scores were also inversely associated with diabetes risk (quintile 5 vs. 1 HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.77, 0.94]; Ptrend < 0.001). uPDI scores were not associated with diabetes risk. CONCLUSIONS A dietary pattern that minimizes animal-derived foods and emphasizes plant foods may reduce diabetes risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)803-809
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes care
Volume47
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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