Placental malaria and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in rural Rwanda

Philip L. Bulterys, Ann Chao, Sudeb C. Dalai, M. Christine Zink, Abel Dushimimana, David Katzenstein, Alfred J. Saah, Marc Bulterys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

We conducted a nested case-control study of placental malaria (PM) and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) within a prospective cohort of 627 mother-infant pairs followed from October 1989 until April 1994 in rural Rwanda. Sixty stored placentas were examined for PM and other placental pathology, comparing 20 HIV-infected mother-infant (perinatal transmitter) pairs, 20 HIV-uninfected pairs, and 20 HIV-infected mothers who did not transmit to their infant perinatally. Of 60 placentas examined, 45% showed evidence of PM. Placental malaria was associated with increased risk of MTCT of HIV-1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-29.1), especially among primigravidae (aOR = 12.0; 95% CI = 1.0-150; P < 0.05). Before antiretroviral therapy or prophylaxis, PM was associated with early infant HIV infection among rural Rwandan women living in a hyper-endemic malaria region. Primigravidae, among whom malaria tends to be most severe, may be at higher risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)202-206
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Volume85
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology
  • Parasitology

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