Biomarkers can be used to measure the presence of a wide variety of parent compounds and metabolites in body fluids and excreta, and serve as biomarkers of internal dose. Chemical-macromolecular adducts formed in blood and tissue or excreted in urine serve as biomarkers of exposure as well, and in many instances reflect both exposure and additional relevant biological processes. An assortment of analytical techniques have been developed to identify and measure parent compounds, metabolites, chemical-DNA and protein adducts. This chapter will discuss many analytical techniques that measure biomarkers in molecular epidemiologic studies, including biological, physical, chemical and immunological methods.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||19|
|Journal||IARC scientific publications|
|State||Published - 2011|
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