Photoplethysmography Revisited: From Contact to Noncontact, from Point to Imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

238 Scopus citations


Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a noninvasive optical technique for detecting microvascular blood volume changes in tissues. Its ease of use, low cost and convenience make it an attractive area of research in the biomedical and clinical communities. Nevertheless, its single spot monitoring and the need to apply a PPG sensor directly to the skin limit its practicality in situations such as perfusion mapping and healing assessments or when free movement is required. The introduction of fast digital cameras into clinical imaging monitoring and diagnosis systems, the desire to reduce the physical restrictions, and the possible new insights that might come from perfusion imaging and mapping inspired the evolution of the conventional PPG technology to imaging PPG (IPPG). IPPG is a noncontact method that can detect heart-generated pulse waves by means of peripheral blood perfusion measurements. Since its inception, IPPG has attracted significant public interest and provided opportunities to improve personal healthcare. This study presents an overview of the wide range of IPPG systems currently being introduced along with examples of their application in various physiological assessments. We believe that the widespread acceptance of IPPG is happening, and it will dramatically accelerate the promotion of this healthcare model in the near future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7268900
Pages (from-to)463-477
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • IPPG]
  • camera
  • cellphone
  • imaging photoplethysmography [(PPG),
  • motion artifact
  • noncontact

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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