Phenotypes of adults with congenital heart disease around the globe: a cluster analysis

the APPROACH-IS consortium and the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: To derive cluster analysis-based groupings for adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) when it comes to perceived health, psychological functioning, health behaviours and quality of life (QoL). Methods: This study was part of a larger worldwide multicentre study called APPROACH-IS; a cross sectional study which recruited 4028 patients (2013–2015) from 15 participating countries. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using Ward's method in order to group patients with similar psychological characteristics, which were defined by taking into consideration the scores of the following tests: Sense Of Coherence, Health Behavior Scale (physical exercise score), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Illness Perception Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale scores of the EQ-5D perceived health scale and a linear analogue scale (0–100) measuring QoL. Results: 3768 patients with complete data were divided into 3 clusters. The first and second clusters represented 89.6% of patients in the analysis who reported a good health perception, QoL, psychological functioning and the greatest amount of exercise. Patients in the third cluster reported substantially lower scores in all PROs. This cluster was characterised by a significantly higher proportion of females, a higher average age the lowest education level, more complex forms of congenital heart disease and more medical comorbidities. Conclusions: This study suggests that certain demographic and clinical characteristics may be linked to less favourable health perception, quality of life, psychological functioning, and health behaviours in ACHD. This information may be used to improve psychosocial screening and the timely provision of psychosocial care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number53
JournalHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Adults with congenital heart disease
  • Cluster analysis
  • Health behaviours
  • Perceived health
  • Psychological functioning
  • Quality of life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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