Background: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is not durably responsive to chemotherapy, and approximately 50% of patients relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Here we report the activity and acute toxicity of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor tipifarnib, the response rate to 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) in combination with cytoreductive chemotherapy, and survival following HSCT in children with JMML. Procedure: Eighty-five patients with newly diagnosed JMML were enrolled on AAML0122 between 2001 and 2006. Forty-seven consented to receive tipifarnib in a phase II window before proceeding to a phase III trial of CRA in combination with fludarabine and cytarabine followed by HSCT and maintenance CRA. Thirty-eight patients enrolled only in the phase III trial. Results: Overall response rate was 51% after tipifarnib and 68% after fludarabine/cytarabine/CRA. Tipifarnib did not increase pre-transplant toxicities. Forty-six percent of the 44 patients who received protocol compliant HSCT relapsed. Five-year overall survival was 55±11% and event-free survival was 41±11%, with no significant difference between patients who did or did not receive tipifarnib. Conclusions: Administration of tipifarnib in the window setting followed by HSCT in patients with newly diagnosed JMML was safe and yielded a 51% initial response rate as a single agent, but failed to reduce relapse rates or improve long-term overall survival. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:629-636.
- 13-cis retinoic acid
- Farnesyl transferase inhibitor
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplant
- Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health