Pharmacokinetics of tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir in a patient on peritoneal dialysis

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Introduction: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective renal replacement modality in people with HIV (PWH) with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), particularly those with residual kidney function. Data on pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretrovirals in patients on peritoneal dialysis are limited. Methods: A single-participant study was performed on a 49-year-old gentleman with ESKD on PD and controlled HIV on once daily dolutegravir (DTG) 50 mg + tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) 25 mg / emtricitabine (FTC) 200 mg. He underwent serial blood plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cell, and urine PK measurements over 24 h after an observed DTG + FTC/TAF dose. Results: Plasma trough (Cmin) concentrations of TAF, tenofovir (TFV), FTC, and DTG were 0.05, 164, 1,006, and 718 ng/mL, respectively. Intracellular trough concentrations of TFV-DP and FTC-TP were 1142 and 11,201 fmol/million cells, respectively. Compared to published mean trough concentrations in PWH with normal kidney function, observed TFV and FTC trough concentrations were 15.5- and 20-fold higher, while intracellular trough concentrations of TFV-DP and FTC-TP were 2.2-fold and 5.4-fold higher, respectively. TFV and FTC urine levels were 20 times lower than in people with normal GFR. Conclusions: In a single ESKD PWH on PD, daily TAF was associated with plasma TFV and intracellular TFV-DP trough concentrations 15-fold and 2-fold higher than those of people with uncompromised kidney function, potentially contributing to nephrotoxicity. This suggests that TFV accumulates on PD; thus, daily TAF in PD patients may require dose adjustment or regimen change to optimize treatment, minimize toxicity, and preserve residual kidney function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number34
JournalAIDS research and therapy
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024


  • Emtricitabine
  • HIV treatment
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Peritoneal dialysis
  • Tenofovir
  • Trough concentration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Virology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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