Purpose: To characterize the pharmacokinetic behavior of 5-azacitidine (5-AC), a cytidine nucleoside analog, when given with phenylbutyrate, a histone deaceytlase inhibitor. Patients and Methods: Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from two trials involving patients with solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. 5-AC at doses ranging from 10 to 75 mg/m2/d was administered once daily as a subcutaneous injection for 5 to 21 days in combination with phenylbutyrate administered as a continuous intravenous infusion for varying dose and duration every 28 or 35 days. Serial plasma samples were collected up to 24 hours after 5-AC administration. 5-AC was quantitated using a validated liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry method. Results: 5-AC was rapidly absorbed with the mean Tmax occurring at 0.47 hour. Average maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC0-∞) values increased in a dose-proportionate manner with increasing dose from 10 to 75 mg/m2/d; the mean ± SD Cmax and AUC0-∞ at 10 mg/m2/d were 776 ± 459 nM and 1,355 ± 1,125 h*nM, respectively, and at 75 mg/ m2/d were 4,871 ± 1,398 nM and 6,582 ± 2,560 h*nM, respectively. Despite a short terminal half-life of 1.5 ± 2.3 hours, inhibition of DNA methyl transferase activity in tumors of patients receiving 5-AC has been documented. Conclusion: 5-AC is rapidly absorbed and eliminated when administered subcutaneously. Sufficient 5-AC exposure is achieved to produce pharmacodynamic effects in tumors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research