Pharmacogenomic aspects of bipolar disorder: An update

M. Budde, D. Degner, J. Brockmöller, T. G. Schulze

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The hopes for readily implementable precision medicine are high. For many complex disorders, such as bipolar disorder, these hopes critically hinge on tangible successes in pharmacogenetics of treatment response or susceptibility to adverse events. In this article, we review the current state of pharmacogenomics of bipolar disorder including latest results from candidate genes and genome-wide association studies. The majority of studies focus on response to lithium treatment. Although a host of genes has been studied, hardly any replicated findings have emerged so far. Very small samples sizes and heterogeneous phenotype definition may be considered the major impediments to success in this field. Drawing from current experiences and successes in studies on diagnostic psychiatric phenotypes, we suggest several approaches for our way forward.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEuropean Neuropsychopharmacology
StateAccepted/In press - Jul 17 2015


  • Genetics
  • Lithium
  • Manic-depressive illness
  • Mood disorders
  • Mood stabilizers
  • Personalized medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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