Phalloplasty: understanding the chaos

Megan Lane, Emily C. Sluiter, Shane D. Morrison, Devin Coon, Katherine M. Gast, Jens U. Berli, William M. Kuzon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Wide variation in overall strategies and surgical specifics for masculinizing genital surgery has created a “phalloplasty chaos” that is confusing to both surgeons and patients seeking gender confirming surgery. The purpose of this article is to review masculinizing genital confirming surgery, or “phalloplasty”, focusing on specific goals and categorizing each component of the surgical process. Experienced surgeons from several high-volume centers review and categorize the commonly employed strategies and techniques for gender confirming phalloplasty, including the permutations of approaches to cutaneous flap for phallic construction, the sequence and staging of procedures, and strategies for urethral construction. There is no clear advantage or reduction in complications associated with particular sequences of urethral and phallic reconstruction. Because no single technique or staging strategy has proven superior for gender confirming genital surgery, it is paramount that surgeons are knowledgeable of all available options and the associated advantages, disadvantages, and risks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number51
JournalPlastic and Aesthetic Research
StatePublished - 2020


  • FtM
  • gender affirming surgery
  • gender confirmation surgery
  • gender confirming surgery
  • gender dysphoria
  • gender reassignment
  • phalloplasty
  • Transgender
  • transgender genital surgery
  • transmasculine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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