Persistent Trichomonas vaginalis infections and the pseudocyst form

Mari Shiratori, Abhishek Patel, Richard W. Gerhold, Steven A. Sullivan, Jane M. Carlton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Recent studies have proposed that Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis [the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) in humans] can establish persistent infections in the vagina. T. vaginalis infections are often asymptomatic but can have adverse consequences such as increased risk of HIV-1 infection and cervical cancer. Despite this, it remains an understudied infection. A potential agent of persistent infections is the ‘pseudocyst’, a spherical form of T. vaginalis identified by several laboratories and linked to persistence in related species such as the avian parasite Trichomonas gallinae and cattle parasite Tritrichomonas foetus. Additional robust and reproducible research on pseudocysts and persistent T. vaginalis infections is required, which may ultimately shed light on how to better diagnose and treat trichomoniasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1023-1031
Number of pages9
JournalTrends in parasitology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • persistence
  • pseudocyst
  • Trichomonas spp.
  • Trichomonas vaginalis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases


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