Percutaneous Embolotherapy of Adolescent Varicocele: Results and Long-term Follow-up

Benedicto L. Reyes, Scott O. Trerotola, Anthony C. Venbrux, Scott J. Savader, Gunnar B. Lund, Dennis S. Peppas, Sally E. Mitchell, John P. Gearhart, Robert I. White, Floyd A. Osterman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


The authors evaluated the technical success and immediate and long-term results of percutaneous varicocele embolotherapy in the adolescent population. Fifty-nine adolescent patients were referred for outpatient spermatic venography and possible varicocele embolotherapy. Embolization was attempted with use of detachable balloons, coils, “sandwiched” dextrose, or a combination of these techniques. Data regarding follow-up were obtained through telephone inteviews or mailed questionnaires. The technical success rate for spermatic vein occlusion was 90%. Follow-up, obtained in 79% of the patients, ranged from 6 months to 8.75 years (mean, 4 years). Thirty-nine of 42 patients (93%) reported disappearance (n = 31) or only a slight, asymptomatic residual varicocele (n = 8). Three patients reported a recurrence of their varicocele. Complications occurred in three of 59 cases (5%), none had any long-term sequelae. In six cases, embolization was not feasible because of multiple collateral vessels or venous spasm. Given the convenience of performing the procedure on an outpatient basis, the rapid recovery time, and long-term success and complication rates comparable to those with surgical ligation, we believe spermatic venography and percutaneous embolization is the treatment modality of choice for adolescent varicocele.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-134
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1994


  • Interventional procedures, in infants and children, 96.1264, 96.756
  • Varicocele, 96.14, 96.756
  • Veins, therapeutic blockade, 96.1264

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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