Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation tasks and hands-off time: A descriptive analysis using video review

Mahsheed Taeb, Jamie M. Schwartz, Michael C. Spaeder, Amanda B. Levin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To characterize tasks performed during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in association with hands-off time, using video recordings of resuscitation events. Design: Single-center, prospective, observational trial. Setting: Twenty-six bed cardiac ICU in a quaternary care free standing pediatric academic hospital. Patients: Patients admitted to the cardiac ICU with cardiopulmonary resuscitation events lasting greater than 2 minutes captured on video. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Videos of 17 cardiopulmonary resuscitation episodes comprising 264.5 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation were reviewed: 11 classic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (87.5 min) and six extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitations (177 min). A total of 209 tasks occurred in 178 discrete time periods including compressor change (36%), rhythm/pulse check (18%), surgical pause (18%), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation preparation/draping (9%), repositioning (7.5%), defibrillation (6%), backboard placement (3%), bagging (<1%), pacing (<1%), intubation (<1%). In 31 time periods, 62 tasks were clustered with 18 (58%) as compressor changes and pulse/rhythm check. In the 178 discrete time periods, 135 occurred with a pause in compressions for greater than or equal to 1 second; 43 tasks occurred without pause. After accounting for repeated measures from individual patients, providers were less likely to perform rhythm or pulse checks (p < 0.0001) or change compressors regularly (p = 0.02) during extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation as compared to classic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The frequency of tasks occurring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation interruptions in the classic cardiopulmonary resuscitation group was constant over the resuscitation but variable in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, peaking during activities required for cannulation. Conclusions: On video review of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, we found that resuscitation guidelines were not strictly followed in either cardiopulmonary resuscitation or extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients, but adherence was worse in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Clustering of resuscitation tasks occurred 23% of the time during chest compression pauses suggesting attempts at minimizing cardiopulmonary resuscitation interruptions. The frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation interruptions task events was relatively constant during classic cardiopulmonary resuscitation but variable in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Characterization of resuscitation tasks by video review may inform better cardiopulmonary resuscitation orchestration and efficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E804-E809
JournalPediatric Critical Care Medicine
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020


  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Intensive care
  • Pediatrics
  • Resuscitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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