Patterns of cigarette, e-cigarette, and cannabis use among adult smokers in primary care 2014–2015

Johannes Thrul, Maya Vijayaraghavan, Sara Kalkhoran, Jason M. Satterfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Poly-use of tobacco, cannabis, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is an emerging problem in the general population. The current study investigated poly-use of these products and receipt of smoking cessation counseling in a primary care setting. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis from a trial of a tablet intervention to increase provider delivery of the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange follow-up), a brief counseling intervention for smoking cessation, in 3 diverse primary care clinics in San Francisco, CA from 2014 to 2015. Participants were currently smoking cigarettes (N = 601; mean age = 50.8; 38.1% female) and reported information on past 30-day cigarette and e-cigarette use and past 3-month cannabis use. We classified participants into 4 groups: (1) cigarette-only, (2) dual-use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, (3) dual-use of cigarettes and cannabis, (4) poly-use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and cannabis, and examined correlates of use. Results: Only cigarette smoking was reported by 48.6% of participants, 30.4% reported use of cigarettes and cannabis, 10.5% reported use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and 10.5% reported use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and cannabis. Cigarette-only smokers did not differ from other groups by cigarette smoking behavior and motivation to quit. Patients reporting dual-use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes had a higher likelihood of receiving the Arrange step and all 5As compared to cigarette-only smokers. Conclusions: Providers should screen for co-use of cigarettes and other nicotine/cannabis products and consider co-use when delivering smoking cessation treatment and evaluating treatment outcomes. Development of guidelines to help facilitate provider training is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106109
JournalAddictive Behaviors
StatePublished - Jan 2020


  • Primary care
  • Smoking cessation
  • Substance abuse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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