Pathophysiology of fetal growth restriction: Implications for diagnosis and surveillance

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations


Normal fetal growth depends on the genetically predetermined growth potential and is modulated by fetal placental, maternal, and external factors. Fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at high risk for poor short- and long-term outcome. Although there are many underlying etiologies, IUGR resulting from placental insufficiency is most relevant clinically because outcome could be altered by appropriate diagnosis and timely delivery. A diagnostic approach that aims to separate IUGR resulting from placental disease from constitutionally small fetuses and those with other underlying etiologies (e.g., aneuploidy, viral infection, nonaneuploid syndromes) needs to integrate multiple imaging modalities. In placental-based IUGR, cardiovascular and behavioral responses are interrelated with the disease severity. Ultrasound assessment of fetal anatomy, amniotic fluid volume, and growth is complementary to the Doppler investigation of fetoplacental blood flow dynamics. A diagnostic approach to IUGR combining these modalities is presented in this review.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)617-627
Number of pages11
JournalObstetrical and Gynecological Survey
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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