Panfacial fractures: Organization of treatment

B. L. Markowitz, P. N. Manson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


Recent advances in facial trauma management have enabled the surgeon to perceive and successfully reconstruct complex panfacial injuries. Restoration of both preinjury facial aesthetics and function is now the goal (Fig. 12). An organized approach to these injuries begins at the maxillary and mandibular arches with progression to the vertical mandible. The naso-orbital ethmoidal complex is stabilized to the cranium and bone grafted when indicated. The zygomatic complex is related medially, and orbital reconstruction performed. The facial architectural restoration is completed at the Lefort I level. Adherence to this protocol enables the surgeon to obtain reproducibly good results, even with the most extensive facial dislocations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-114
Number of pages10
JournalClinics in Plastic Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1989
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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