P4 medicine: How systems medicine will transform the healthcare sector and society

Mauricio Flores, Gustavo Glusman, Kristin Brogaard, Nathan D. Price, Leroy Hood

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

224 Scopus citations


Ten years ago, the proposition that healthcare is evolving from reactive disease care to care that is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory was regarded as highly speculative. Today, the core elements of that vision are widely accepted and have been articulated in a series of recent reports by the US Institute of Medicine. Systems approaches to biology and medicine are now beginning to provide patients, consumers and physicians with personalized information about each individual's unique health experience of both health and disease at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. This information will make disease care radically more cost effective by personalizing care to each person's unique biology and by treating the causes rather than the symptoms of disease. It will also provide the basis for concrete action by consumers to improve their health as they observe the impact of lifestyle decisions. Working together in digitally powered familial and affinity networks, consumers will be able to reduce the incidence of the complex chronic diseases that currently account for 75% of disease-care costs in the USA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)565-576
Number of pages12
JournalPersonalized Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • P4 medicine
  • big data
  • knowledge network
  • learning healthcare
  • new taxonomy of disease
  • omics studies
  • personal data clouds
  • systems biology
  • systems medicine
  • wellness industry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology


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