Oxidative stress and therapeutic approaches in HIV dementia

Joseph Steiner, Norman Haughey, Wenxue Li, Arun Venkatesan, Caroline Anderson, Rollie Reid, Tanya Malpica, Chava Pocernich, D. Allan Butterfield, Avindra Nath

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


Despite the rapidly increasing incidence of HIV infection worldwide and the increasing prevalence of HIV-associated cognitive impairment, even in patients adequately treated with antiretroviral therapy, currently no effective treatment exists for HIV dementia. A broad range of studies using either brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tissues from well-characterized patients with HIV dementia, animal models, and in vitro studies from several laboratories using HIV-infected cells or HIV proteins provide overwhelming evidence for oxidative stress in mediating neuronal injury in this patient population. These studies also suggest that patients with apolipoprotein E (ApoE) 4 allele are more susceptible to such oxidative damage. In this review, we provide a critical analysis of these studies, including the few clinical trials that have used antioxidants to treat HIV dementia. We also discuss several novel agents with potent antioxidative properties and provide a rationale for combination antioxidant and neuroprotective therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2089-2100
Number of pages12
JournalAntioxidants and Redox Signaling
Issue number11-12
StatePublished - 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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