Oxidative Dimerization of PHD2 is Responsible for its Inactivation and Contributes to Metabolic Reprogramming via HIF-1α Activation

Gibok Lee, Hyung Sik Won, Yoon Mi Lee, Jae Wan Choi, Taek In Oh, Jeong Hwa Jang, Dong Kug Choi, Beong Ou Lim, Young Jun Kim, Jong Wan Park, Pere Puigserver, Ji Hong Lim

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58 Scopus citations


Prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) belongs to an evolutionarily conserved superfamily of 2-oxoglutarate and Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases that mediates homeostatic responses to oxygen deprivation by mediating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) hydroxylation and degradation. Although oxidative stress contributes to the inactivation of PHD2, the precise molecular mechanism of PHD2 inactivation independent of the levels of co-factors is not understood. Here, we identified disulfide bond-mediated PHD2 homo-dimer formation in response to oxidative stress caused by oxidizing agents and oncogenic H-rasV12 signalling. Cysteine residues in the double-stranded β-helix fold that constitutes the catalytic site of PHD isoforms appeared responsible for the oxidative dimerization. Furthermore, we demonstrated that disulfide bond-mediated PHD2 dimerization is associated with the stabilization and activation of HIF-1α under oxidative stress. Oncogenic H-rasV12 signalling facilitates the accumulation of HIF-1α in the nucleus and promotes aerobic glycolysis and lactate production. Moreover, oncogenic H-rasV12 does not trigger aerobic glycolysis in antioxidant-treated or PHD2 knocked-down cells, suggesting the participation of the ROS-mediated PHD2 inactivation in the oncogenic H-rasV12-mediated metabolic reprogramming. We provide here a better understanding of the mechanism by which disulfide bond-mediated PHD2 dimerization and inactivation result in the activation of HIF-1α and aerobic glycolysis in response to oxidative stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number18928
JournalScientific Reports
StatePublished - Jan 7 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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