Overall and minority-focused recruitment strategies in the PREMIER multicenter trial of lifestyle interventions for blood pressure control

Betty M. Kennedy, Shiriki Kumanyika, Jamy D. Ard, Patrice Reams, Cheryl A. Johnson, Njeri Karanja, Jeanne B. Charleston, Lawrence J. Appel, Vallerie Maurice, David W. Harsha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Recruitment strategies employed by four clinical centers across the US and a coordinating center were examined to identify successful overall and minority-focused recruitment strategies for the PREMIER multicenter trial of lifestyle changes for blood pressure control. The goal was to recruit 800 adults (40% African Americans) with systolic blood pressure of 120-159 mmHg and diastolic of 80-95 mmHg, not taking antihypertensive medication. Clinical centers used combinations of mass distribution of brochures, mass media, email distribution lists, screening events, and a national website. Culturally appropriate strategies for African Americans were designed by a Minority Implementation (MI) committee. Diversity training was provided for study staff, and African Americans were included in the study design process. Main recruitment outcomes were number overall and number of African Americans recruited by each strategy. Of the 810 randomized PREMIER participants, 279 (34%) were African American with site-specific percentages of 56%, 46%, 27%, and 8%. Of African Americans recruited, 151 (54%) were from mass distribution of brochures (mailed letter, flyer included in Val-Pak coupons, or other), 66 (24%) from mass media (printed article, radio, TV story or ads, 52 (19%) from word of mouth, and 10 (3%) from email/website and screening events combined. Yields for Non-Hispanic Whites were 364 (69%) from brochures, 71 (13%) from mass media, 49 (9%) from word of mouth and 47 (9%) from email/website and screening events. Mass distribution of brochures was relatively more effective with Non-Hispanic Whites, while African Americans responded relatively better to other recruitment strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-54
Number of pages6
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2010


  • Cultural appropriateness
  • Mass distribution
  • Minority participants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)


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