Outcomes related to immediate extubation after stage 1 Norwood palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Joby Varghese, James M. Hammel, Ali N. Ibrahimiye, Rebecca Siecke, Karl Stessy Bisselou Moukagna, Shelby Kutty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Objective: Immediate extubation may have outcome benefits when judiciously instituted after neonatal congenital cardiac surgery. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of immediate extubation specifically in neonates undergoing stage 1 Norwood palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Methods: Consecutive neonates undergoing stage 1 Norwood (January 2010 to December 2016) for hypoplastic left heart syndrome were retrospectively studied. Immediate extubation was defined as successful extubation before termination of anesthetic care. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were compared between immediate extubation and nonimmediate extubation groups, and bivariate analyses and descriptive methods were used to express the association of outcome variables with immediate extubation. Data were expressed as number and percent for categoric variables, and median and interquartile range for continuous variables. Results: Of 23 patients who underwent stage 1 palliation, 5 had immediate extubation (22%). There were no differences in preoperative or intraoperative factors between patients who did and did not undergo immediate extubation. There were no deaths in the immediate extubation group. In the nonimmediate extubation group, 3 patients died before hospital discharge. One patient who had immediate extubation and 4 patients among those who did not have immediate extubation had to be reintubated in the 96 hours that followed extubation (P = 1). Intensive care unit length of stay was 8 (3-17) and 8 (5-18) (days) for the immediate extubation group and nonimmediate extubation groups, respectively (P =.71). Conclusions: Immediate extubation strategy was safely accomplished in one-fifth of this cohort of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A larger cohort may delineate the determinants of immediate extubation and its benefits in infants undergoing stage 1 single ventricle palliation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1591-1598
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Norwood operation, immediate extubation, outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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