Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Whether the impact of anemia differs by heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is uncertain. We examined hospital surveillance data captured by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010. Diagnoses of ADHF were validated by standardized physician review of the medical record. Anemia was classified using the World Health Organization criteria (<12 g/dl for women and <13 g/dl for men), and HF type was determined by the ejection fraction (<40% for HFrEF and ≥40% for HFpEF). Hospital length of stay and 1-year mortality outcomes were analyzed by multivariable regression, weighted to account for the sampling design, and adjusted for demographics and clinical covariates. Over 6 years, 15,461 (weighted) hospitalized events for ADHF (59% HFrEF) occurred in the catchment of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, based on 3,309 sampled events. Anemia was associated with a mortality hazard ratio of 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6 to 2.7) in patients classified with HFpEF and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) in those with HFrEF; p for interaction = 0.05. The mean increase in length of hospital stay associated with anemia was 3.5 days (95% CI 3.4 to 3.6) for patients with HFpEF, compared with 1.8 days (95% CI 1.7 to 1.9) for those with HFrEF; p for interaction <0.0001. In conclusion, the incremental risks of death and lengthened hospital stay associated with anemia are more pronounced in ADHF patients classified with HFpEF than HFrEF.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine