Outcomes and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Events in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

the Center of Excellence for Research in Infectious Diseases (CERID) Coronavirus Study Group on behalf of the COVID-19 CardioVascular Research Group (COVID-CVRG)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To analyze outcomes and risk factors of cardiovascular events in a metropolitan coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) database, and to perform a subgroup analysis in African American populations to determine whether outcomes and risk factors are influenced by race. Design: Retrospective cohort analysis from March 9, 2020 to June 20, 2020. Setting: Population-based study in Louisville, KY, USA. Participants: Seven hundred adult inpatients hospitalized with COVID-19. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Main Results: This cohort consisted of 126 patients (18%) with cardiovascular events and 574 patients without cardiovascular events. Patients with cardiovascular events had a much higher mortality rate than those without cardiovascular events (45.2% v 8.7%, p < 0.001). There was no difference between African American and white patients regarding mortality (43.9% v 46.3%, p = 1) and length of stay for survivors (11 days v 9.5 days, p = 0.301). Multiple logistics regression analysis suggested that male, race, lower SaO2/FIO2, higher serum potassium, lower serum albumin, and number of cardiovascular comorbidities were highly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events in COVID-19 patients. Lower serum albumin and neoplastic and/or immune-compromised diseases were highly associated with cardiovascular events for African American COVID-19 patients. SaO2/FIO2 ratio and cardiovascular comorbidity count were significantly associated with cardiovascular events in white patients. Conclusions: Cardiovascular events were prevalent and associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Outcomes of cardiovascular events in African American and white COVID-19 patients were similar after propensity score matching analysis. There were common and unique risk factors for cardiovascular events in African American COVID-19 patients when compared with white patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3581-3593
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • cardiovascular
  • coronavirus
  • outcome
  • risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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