Outcome preferences of older people with multiple chronic conditions and hypertension: A cross-sectional survey using best-worst scaling

Hélène E. Aschmann, Milo A. Puhan, Craig W. Robbins, Elizabeth A. Bayliss, Wiley V. Chan, Richard A. Mularski, Reneé F. Wilson, Wendy L. Bennett, Orla C. Sheehan, Tsung Yu, Henock G. Yebyo, Bruce Leff, Heather Tabano, Karen Armacost, Carol Glover, Katie Maslow, Suzanne Mintz, Cynthia M. Boyd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Older people with hypertension and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) receive complex treatments and face challenging trade-offs. Patients' preferences for different health outcomes can impact multiple treatment decisions. Since evidence about outcome preferences is especially scarce among people with MCC our aim was to elicit preferences of people with MCC for outcomes related to hypertension, and to determine how these outcomes should be weighed when benefits and harms are assessed for patient-centered clinical practice guidelines and health economic assessments. Methods: We sent a best-worst scaling preference survey to a random sample identified from a primary care network of Kaiser Permanente (Colorado, USA). The sample included individuals age 60 or greater with hypertension and at least two other chronic conditions. We assessed average ranking of patient-important outcomes using conditional logit regression (stroke, heart attack, heart failure, dialysis, cognitive impairment, chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, fainting, injurious falls, low blood pressure with dizziness, treatment burden) and studied variation across individuals. Results: Of 450 invited participants, 217 (48%) completed the survey, and we excluded 10 respondents who had more than two missing choices, resulting in a final sample of 207 respondents. Participants ranked stroke as the most worrisome outcome and treatment burden as the least worrisome outcome (conditional logit parameters: 3.19 (standard error 0.09) for stroke, 0 for treatment burden). None of the outcomes were always chosen as the most or least worrisome by more than 25% of respondents, indicating that all outcomes were somewhat worrisome to respondents. Predefined subgroup analyses according to age, self-reported life-expectancy, degree of comorbidity, number of medications and antihypertensive treatment did not reveal meaningful differences. Conclusions: Although some outcomes were more worrisome to patients than others, our results indicate that none of the outcomes should be disregarded for clinical practice guidelines and health economic assessments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number186
JournalHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 19 2019


  • Best-worst scaling
  • Hypertension
  • Multiple chronic conditions
  • Outcome preferences
  • Patient preferences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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