Optimized detection of lactate at high fields using inner volume saturation

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58 Scopus citations


In localized proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in vivo, the detection of lactate (Lac) is affected by modulation of its resonances due to homonuclear scalar couplings (J). A simple and convenient way to distinguish Lac from lipids is to set the TE to 1/J so that the Lac signal is inverted while other resonances (such as lipid) remain in-phase. However, at high field strengths, such as 3 Tesla or above, the modulation of the Lac signal is complicated by chemical shift effects that cause modulation patterns to vary within different subregions of the localized volume. Under some conditions the Lac signal may even disappear completely. In this note we introduce the concept of inner volume saturation (IVS), which makes use of high band-width spatial pulses to remove the signal corresponding to the regions of the localized volume that contribute unwanted modulation patterns. The method is described theoretically and demonstrated experimentally at 3 Tesla in a phantom and a patient with acute stroke. The phantom measurements indicate that virtually 100% of the Lac signal can be recovered using this method. The method should be feasible at magnetic fields above 3 Tesla, and may also be applied to other coupled spin systems in which modulation effects are important.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)912-917
Number of pages6
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2006


  • 3 Tesla
  • Brain
  • Inner volume saturation
  • Lactate
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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