Objective To examine the associations of provider-patient communication, glaucoma medication adherence self-efficacy, and outcome expectations with glaucoma medication adherence. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Participants Two hundred seventy-nine patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or taking glaucoma medications were recruited at 6 ophthalmology clinics. Methods Patients' visits were video recorded and communication variables were coded using a detailed coding tool developed by the authors. Adherence was measured using Medication Event Monitoring Systems for 60 days after their visits. Main Outcome Measures The following adherence variables were measured for the 60-day period after their visits: whether the patient took 80% or more of the prescribed doses, percentage of the correct number of prescribed doses taken each day, and percentage of the prescribed doses taken on time. Results Higher glaucoma medication adherence self-efficacy was associated positively with better adherence with all 3 measures. Black race was associated negatively with percentage of the correct number of doses taken each day (β = -0.16; P < 0.05) and whether the patient took 80% or more of the prescribed doses (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.86). Physician education about how to administer drops was associated positively with percentage of the correct number of doses taken each day (β = 0.18; P < 0.01) and percentage of the prescribed doses taken on time (β = 0.15; P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings indicate that provider education about how to administer glaucoma drops and patient glaucoma medication adherence self-efficacy are associated positively with adherence.
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