Ophthalmic manifestations of tuberous sclerosis: a review

Nickisa Hodgson, Michael Kinori, Michael H. Goldbaum, Shira L. Robbins

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Tuberous sclerosis or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), one of the phakomatoses, is characterized by hamartomas of the heart, kidney, brain, skin and eyes. Ophthalmologic examinations are required in all cases of TSC. Retinal hamartomas are the most common ocular finding in tuberous sclerosis. The majority of hamartomas are non-progressive; however, lesions with subretinal fluid and progression have been reported. This paper details the genetics, clinical features and ocular findings of TSC and reviews potential therapeutic options for ophthalmic manifestations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-86
Number of pages6
JournalClinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • ophthalmic
  • review
  • tuberous sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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