Ophthalmic manifestations of induced sickling of erythrocytes in Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon)

S. J. Vainisi, C. J. Parshall, M. F. Goldberg, E. D. Wolf

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1 Scopus citations


9 female Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) were used in a total of 25 experiments in which sickling was chemically induced. During these experiments, color fundic and color fluorescein photographs were taken. Fundic changes included retinal vascular attenuation, blood column pallor, and decreased tapetal reflectivity. These changes were most likely directly associated with a decreased hematocrit and a generalized shocklike condition. 3 deer had a congested appearance in retinal blood vessels and tapetum lucidum. 2 of the 3 deer developed serous detachment of the retina. These changes seemingly were associated with severe venous stasis; all 3 deer died shortly after the experiment was terminated. These experiments yielded data only for the acutely affected deer. None of the ocular changes could be considered the result of chronic sickling because of the reversal of sickling that occurred despite continued i.v. administration of bicarbonate. None of the deer developed ocular changes characteristic of sickle cell retinopathy in human beings. The changes in human beings probably result from continued stress and prolongation of sickling, and especially from a multiplicity of repeated severe episodes of sickling occurring over many years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)753-756
Number of pages4
JournalAmerican journal of veterinary research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 1975
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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