Operating room waste: Disposable supply utilization in neurosurgical procedures

Corinna C. Zygourakis, Seungwon Yoon, Victoria Valencia, Christy Boscardin, Christopher Moriates, Ralph Gonzales, Michael T. Lawton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objective Disposable supplies constitute a large portion of operating room (OR) costs and are often left over at the end of a surgical case. Despite financial and environmental implications of such waste, there has been little evaluation of OR supply utilization. The goal of this study was to quantify the utilization of disposable supplies and the costs associated with opened but unused items (i.e., "waste") in neurosurgical procedures. Methods Every disposable supply that was unused at the end of surgery was quantified through direct observation of 58 neurosurgical cases at the University of California, San Francisco, in August 2015. Item costs (in US dollars) were determined from the authors' supply catalog, and statistical analyses were performed. Results Across 58 procedures (36 cranial, 22 spinal), the average cost of unused supplies was $653 (range $89-$3640, median $448, interquartile range $230-$810), or 13.1% of total surgical supply cost. Univariate analyses revealed that case type (cranial versus spinal), case category (vascular, tumor, functional, instrumented, and noninstrumented spine), and surgeon were important predictors of the percentage of unused surgical supply cost. Case length and years of surgical training did not affect the percentage of unused supply cost. Accounting for the different case distribution in the 58 selected cases, the authors estimate approximately $968 of OR waste per case, $242, 968 per month, and $2.9 million per year, for their neurosurgical department. Conclusions This study shows a large variation and significant magnitude of OR waste in neurosurgical procedures. At the authors' institution, they recommend price transparency, education about OR waste to surgeons and nurses, preference card reviews, and clarification of supplies that should be opened versus available as needed to reduce waste.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)620-625
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Disposable surgical supplies
  • Operating room
  • Supply utilization
  • Surgical cost

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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