One Hundred Ten Years of Allergen Immunotherapy: A Broad Look Into the Future

Oliver Pfaar, Peter S. Creticos, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Oscar Palomares, Stefan Schülke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only disease-modifying treatment option for patients with type 1–mediated allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis with/without allergic asthma. Although many innovations have been developed since the first clinical report of Noon et al in 1911, the improvement of clinical efficacy and tolerability of this treatment is still an important unmet need. Hence, much progress has been made in the characterization of the cell types, cytokines, and intracellular signaling events involved in the development, maintenance, and regulation of allergic reactions, and also in the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance induction in AIT. This comprehensive review aims to summarize the current innovative approaches in AIT, but also gives an outlook on promising candidates of the future. On the basis of an extensive literature review, integrating a clinical point of view, this article focuses on recent and future innovations regarding biologicals, allergen-derived peptides, recombinant allergens, “Toll”-like receptor agonists and other adjuvants, and novel application routes being developed for future AIT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1791-1803
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021


  • Allergen immunotherapy
  • Biologicals
  • Peptides
  • Recombinant
  • Review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy


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