Ocular Biometric Risk Factors for Progression of Primary Angle Closure Disease: The Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention Trial

Benjamin Y. Xu, David S. Friedman, Paul J. Foster, Yu Jiang, Natalia Porporato, Anmol A. Pardeshi, Yuzhen Jiang, Beatriz Munoz, Tin Aung, Mingguang He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To assess baseline ocular biometric risk factors for progression from primary angle closure suspect (PACS) to primary angle closure (PAC) or acute angle closure (AAC). Design: Prospective, observational study. Participants: Six hundred forty-three mainland Chinese with untreated PACS. Methods: Participants underwent baseline clinical examinations, including gonioscopy, anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT) imaging, and A-scan ultrasound biometry as part of the Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention (ZAP) Trial. Primary angle closure suspect was defined as an inability to visualize pigmented trabecular meshwork in 2 or more quadrants based on static gonioscopy. Primary angle closure was defined as development of intraocular pressure above 24 mmHg or peripheral anterior synechiae. Progression was defined as development of PAC or an AAC attack. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to assess biometric risk factors for progression. Main Outcome Measures: Six-year progression from PACS to PAC or AAC. Results: Six hundred forty-three untreated eyes (609 nonprogressors, 34 progressors) of 643 participants were analyzed. In a multivariable model with continuous parameters, narrower horizontal angle opening distance of 500 μm from the scleral spur (AOD500; odds ratio [OR], 1.10 per 0.01-mm decrease; P = 0.03), flatter horizontal iris curvature (IC; OR, 1.96 per 0.1-mm decrease; P = 0.01), and older age (OR, 1.11 per 1-year increase; P = 0.01) at baseline were associated significantly with progression (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.73). Smaller cumulative gonioscopy score was not associated with progression (OR, 1.03 per 1-modified Shaffer grade decrease; P = 0.85) when replacing horizontal AOD500 in the multivariable model. In a separate multivariable model with categorical parameters, participants in the lowest quartile of horizontal AOD500 (OR, 3.10; P = 0.002) and IC (OR, 2.48; P = 0.014) measurements and 59 years of age or older (OR, 2.68; P = 0.01) at baseline showed higher odds of progression (AUC, 0.72). Conclusions: Ocular biometric measurements can help to risk-stratify patients with early angle closure for more severe disease. Anterior segment OCT measurements of biometric parameters describing the angle and iris are predictive of progression from PACS to PAC or AAC, whereas gonioscopy grades are not.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-275
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Angle closure glaucoma
  • Anterior segment OCT
  • Disease progression
  • Ocular biometrics
  • Primary angle closure
  • Risk stratification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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