Nutrient intake and blood pressure in the dietary intervention study in children

Denise G. Simons-Morton, Sally A. Hunsberger, Linda Van Horn, Bruce A. Barton, Alan M. Robson, Robert P. McMahon, Linda E. Muhonen, Peter O. Kwiterovich, Norman L. Lasser, Sue Y.S. Kimm, Merwyn R. Greenlick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

94 Scopus citations


Delineating the role that diet plays in blood pressure levels in children is important for guiding dietary recommendations for the prevention of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between dietary nutrients and blood pressure in children. Data were analyzed from 662 participants in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children who had elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and were aged 8 to 11 years at baseline. Three 24-hour dietary recalls, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, height, and weight were obtained at baseline, 1 year, and 3 years. Nutrients analyzed were the micronutrients calcium, magnesium, and potassium; the macronutrients protein, carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and monounsaturatcd fat; dietary cholesterol; and total dietary fiber. Baseline and 3-year longitudinal relationships were examined through multivariate models on diastolic and systolic pressures separately, controlling for height, weight, sex, and total caloric intake. The following associations were found in longitudinal analyses: analyzing each nutrient separately, for systolic pressure, inverse associations with calcium (P<.05); magnesium, potassium, and protein (all P<.01); and fiber (P<.05), and direct associations with total fat and monounsaturated fat (both P<.05); for diastolic pressure, inverse associations with calcium (P<.01); magnesium and potassium (both P<.05); protein (P<.01); and carbohydrates and fiber (both P<.05), and direct associations with polyunsaturated fat (P<.01) and monounsaturated fat (P<.05). Analyzing all nutrients simultaneously, for systolic pressure, direct association with total fat (P<.01); for diastolic pressure, inverse associations with calcium (P<.01) and fiber (P<.05), and direct association with total and monounsaturated fats (both P<.05). Results from this sample of children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol indicate that dietary calcium, fiber, and fat may be important determinants of blood pressure level in children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)930-936
Number of pages7
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1997


  • blood pressure
  • child nutrition
  • children
  • diet
  • nutrition
  • trace elements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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