NSQIP analysis: Increased immediate reconstruction in the treatment of breast cancer

Jennifer Sabino, Donald J. Lucas, Craig D. Shriver, Amy E. Vertrees, Ian L. Valerio, Devinder P. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Immediate reconstruction after the surgical treatment of breast cancer has increased in the last decade. The purpose of this study is to use the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database to analyze long-term trends in breast reconstruction. Women who underwent mastectomy for invasive or in situ breast cancer or prophylaxis between 2005 and 2011 were selected from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Trends and predictors for reconstruction were explored. In 44,410 women identified, immediate reconstruction increased from 30.0 to 39.6 per cent from 2005 to 2011 (P < 0.001). This trend persisted after adjustment for patient characteristics using multivariate logistic regression [odds ratio (OR) 1.09/year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.10]. Reconstruction type was 77.9 per cent implant, 13.3 per cent pedicle flap, 5.5 per cent free flap, and 3.3 per cent other. Pedicle flaps decreased from 27.1 to 9.2 per cent (P < 0.001), implant-based reconstruction increased from 66.3 to 81.3 per cent (P < 0.001), and free flaps remained stable between 4 and 7 per cent. Independent predictors for reconstruction were young age (stepwise decrease in OR from 1 to 0.02 by decade as age increased from 40 to 80, all P < 0.001), carcinoma in situ (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.42-1.61), prophylaxis (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.63-2.19), bilateral resection (OR 2.55, 95% CI 2.42-2.69), and non-Hispanic white race (OR 0.67 for other races, 95% CI 0.64-0.70). Immediate breast reconstruction has steadily increased since 2005 with an associated rise in implant-based reconstruction. Based on these trends, discussion with a reconstructive surgeon should be an early part of the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient's treatment algorithm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)540-545
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Surgeon
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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