Objective: To characterize 2 novel TRPV4 mutations in 2 unrelated families exhibiting the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C (CMT2C) phenotype. Methods: Direct CMT gene testing was performed on 2 unrelated families with CMT2C. A 4-fold symmetric tetramer model of human TRPV4 was generated to map the locations of novel TRPV4 mutations in these families relative to previously identified disease-causing mutations (neuropathy, skeletal dysplasia, and osteoarthropathy). Effects of the mutations on TRPV4 expression, localization, and channel activity were determined by immunocytochemical, immunoblotting, Ca2+ imaging, and cytotoxicity assays. Results: Previous studies suggest that neuropathy-causing mutations occur primarily at arginine residues on the convex face of the TRPV4 ankyrin repeat domain (ARD). Further highlighting the key role of this domain in TRPV4-mediated hereditary neuropathy, we report 2 novel heterozygous missense mutations in the TRPV4-ARD convex face (p.Arg237Gly and p.Arg237Leu). Generation of a model of the TRPV4 homotetramer revealed that while ARD residues mutated in neuropathy (including Arg237) are likely accessible for intermolecular interactions, skeletal dysplasia-causing TRPV4 mutations occur at sites suggesting disruption of intramolecular and/or intersubunit interactions. Like previously described neuropathy-causing mutations, the p.Arg237Gly and p.Arg237Leu substitutions do not alter TRPV4 subcellular localization in transfected cells but cause elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ levels and marked cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These findings expand the number of ARD residues mutated in TRPV4-mediated neuropathy, providing further evidence of the central importance of this domain to TRPV4 function in peripheral nerve.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology