Purpose: Allogeneic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting tumor vaccines can cure established tumors in the mouse, but their efficacy against human tumors is uncertain. We have developed a novel GM-CSF-secreting pancreatic tumor vaccine. To determine its safety and ability to induce antitumor immune responses, we conducted a phase I trial in patients with surgically resected adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Patients and Methods: Fourteen patients with stage 1, 2, or 3 pancreatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Eight weeks after pancreaticoduodenectomy, three patients received 1 × 107 vaccine cells, three patients received 5 × 107 vaccine cells, three patients received 10 × 107 vaccine cells, and five patients received 50 × 107 vaccine cells. Twelve of 14 patients then went on to receive a 6-month course of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. One month after completing adjuvant treatment, six patients still in remission received up to three additional monthly vaccinations with the same vaccine dose that they had received originally. Results: No dose-limiting toxicities were encountered. Vaccination induced increased delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to autologous tumor cells in three patients who had received ≥ 10 × 107 vaccine cells. These three patients also seemed to have had an increased disease-free survival time, remaining disease-free at least 25 months after diagnosis. Conclusion: Allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting tumor vaccines are safe in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This vaccine approach seems to induce dose-dependent systemic antitumor immunity as measured by increased postvaccination DTH responses against autologous tumors. Further clinical evaluation of this approach in patients with pancreatic cancer is warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research