Nonlinear ICA of fMRI reveals primitive temporal structures linked to rest, task, and behavioral traits

Hiroshi Morioka, Vince Calhoun, Aapo Hyvärinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Accumulating evidence from whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggests that the human brain at rest is functionally organized in a spatially and temporally constrained manner. However, because of their complexity, the fundamental mechanisms underlying time-varying functional networks are still not well understood. Here, we develop a novel nonlinear feature extraction framework called local space-contrastive learning (LSCL), which extracts distinctive nonlinear temporal structure hidden in time series, by training a deep temporal convolutional neural network in an unsupervised, data-driven manner. We demonstrate that LSCL identifies certain distinctive local temporal structures, referred to as temporal primitives, which repeatedly appear at different time points and spatial locations, reflecting dynamic resting-state networks. We also show that these temporal primitives are also present in task-evoked spatiotemporal responses. We further show that the temporal primitives capture unique aspects of behavioral traits such as fluid intelligence and working memory. These results highlight the importance of capturing transient spatiotemporal dynamics within fMRI data and suggest that such temporal primitives may capture fundamental information underlying both spontaneous and task-induced fMRI dynamics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number116989
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • Behavioral traits
  • Local space-contrastive learning (LSCL)
  • Nonlinear spatial independent component analysis (sICA)
  • Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  • Temporal primitives
  • Unsupervised deep learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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