Nonbiological pharmacotherapies for the treatment of diabetic macular edema

Aniruddha Agarwal, Jacob Parriott, Sibel Demirel, Colby Argo, Yasir Jamal Sepah, Diana V. Do, Quan Dong Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: During the past decade, there have been significant advances in the pharmacotherapies for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Among the presently available treatment options, anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGF) agents are the most favored agents due to their efficacy and safety. The index review focuses on nonbiological therapies that have entered in phase 3 clinical trials for DME.Areas covered: An extensive review of the literature was performed to identify various nonbiological immunotherapies i.e., drugs other than -mAbs (monoclonal antibodies including anti-VEGF agents), -mibs (proteasome inhibitors), -NAbs (nanoparticle albumin-bound), and -nibs (small molecule inhibitor/tyrosine kinase inhibitors), among others. Extended-release low-dose corticosteroid devices have been recently approved for the treatment of DME. Other compounds such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibody mimetic proteins, nonbiological growth factor inhibitors, and inhibitors of protein kinase C have been described.Expert opinion: A number of therapies are under development for the pharmacological management of DME. Due to the rising healthcare costs associated with anti-VEGF agents, a number of alternate treatment options have been explored recently. Some of these agents have reached phase 3 in clinical trials and appear to have a promising role in the management of DME. As further research is conducted, the role of each individual agent will become more defined, alone or in combination therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2625-2635
Number of pages11
JournalExpert opinion on pharmacotherapy
Issue number17
StatePublished - Nov 22 2015


  • clinical trials
  • diabetic macular edema
  • nonbiological pharmacotherapy
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • steroids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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