Non-invasive temperature mapping using temperature-responsive water saturation shift referencing (T-WASSR) MRI

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


We present a non-invasive MRI approach for assessing the water proton resonance frequency (PRF) shifts associated with changes in temperature. This method is based on water saturation shift referencing (WASSR), a method first developed for assessing B0 field inhomogeneity. Temperature-induced water PRF shifts were determined by estimating the frequency of the minimum intensity of the water direct saturation spectrum at each temperature using Lorentzian line-shape fitting. The change in temperature was then calculated from the difference in water PRF shifts between temperatures. Optimal acquisition parameters were first estimated using simulations and later confirmed experimentally. Results in vitro and in vivo showed that the temperature changes measured using the temperature-responsive WASSR (T-WASSR) were in good agreement with those obtained with MR spectroscopy or phase-mapping-based water PRF measurement methods,. In addition, the feasibility of temperature mapping in fat-containing tissue is demonstrated in vitro. In conclusion, the T-WASSR approach provides an alternative for non-invasive temperature mapping by MRI, especially suitable for temperature measurements in fat-containing tissues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)320-331
Number of pages12
JournalNMR in biomedicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2014


  • MRI thermometry
  • Proton resonance frequency (PRF)
  • Temperature mapping
  • Water direct saturation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy


Dive into the research topics of 'Non-invasive temperature mapping using temperature-responsive water saturation shift referencing (T-WASSR) MRI'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this