Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Robert M. Hardwick, Pablo A. Celnik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The non-invasive brain stimulation techniques of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have developed considerably over the last 25 years. Recent studies have used these techniques to enhance motor and cognitive function, modulate psychiatric symptoms, and reduce pain. Here, we briefly present TMS and tDCS techniques, discuss their safety, and provide examples of studies applying these interventions to enhance movement function following stroke. Though further studies are required, investigations so far provide important first steps in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to aid routine rehabilitation therapy. We discuss future directions for the field in terms of study development, choice of motor task, and target sites for stimulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)300-309
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014


  • Lower limb rehabilitation
  • Motor function
  • Speech rehabilitation
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
  • Upper limb rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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