Nitrotyrosine as a new marker for endogenous nitrosation and nitration of proteins

H. Ohshima, M. Friesen, I. Brouet, H. Bartsch

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227 Scopus citations


3-Nitrotyrosine (NTYR) in tissue or blood proteins was evaluated as a possible exposure marker for exogenous and endogenous nitrosating or nitrating agents. A sensitive and selective method for analysing NTYR by gas chromatography with a thermal energy analyser (GC-TEA) was developed. Using this method, a number of kinetic studies were carried out. It was found that free and protein-bound tyrosine residues easily react with nitrating/nitrosating agents to yield NTYR. NTYR formation in vivo showed a dose-dependent increase in NTYR in both plasma proteins and haemoglobin obtained from rats 24 hr after ip injection of various doses (0.5-2.5 μmol/rat) of tetranitromethane. Major urinary metabolites of NTYR, given orally to rats, were isolated and identified as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (NHPA) and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid (NHPL). About 44% and 5% of the oral dose of NTYR (100 μg/rat) was excreted as NHPA and NHPL, respectively. Eleven 24-hr human urine samples were analysed for NHPA by GC-TEA after ethyl acetate extraction and HPLC purification: quantities ranging from 0 to 7.9 μg/24 hr, mean ± SD 2.8 ± 2.3 (n = 11) were detected (detection limit 0.2 μg/litre). NTYR in proteins or its metabolites in urine can be readily analysed by GC-TEA as a new/additional marker for endogenous nitrosation and nitration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)647-652
Number of pages6
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes


  • 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid
  • 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid
  • 3-nitrotyrosine
  • BSA
  • GC-MS
  • GC-TEA
  • N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide
  • NHPA
  • NHPL
  • NPRO
  • NTYR
  • TNM
  • bovine serum albumin
  • gas chromatography with a thermal energy analyser
  • gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • nitrosoproline
  • tetranitromethane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology


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