Nicotine as a reinforcer in human subjects and laboratory animals

Jack E. Henningfield, Steven R. Goldberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

146 Scopus citations


Results are summarized from 17 studies in which intravenous nicotine was evaluated in self-administration paradigms. Six species, ranging from the albino rat to the human, have been tested under a variety of schedules of reinforcement, and as a function of several pharmacologic manipulations. Under certain environmental conditions, it is clear that nicotine can serve as a reinforcer. However, nicotine differs from many other drugs of abuse in that the range of environmental conditions under which it serves as a reinforcer appears to be more restricted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)989-992
Number of pages4
JournalPharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1983


  • Behavioral pharmacology
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Drug abuse
  • Nicotine
  • Reinforcement schedule
  • Self-administration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Pharmacology


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