New insights into the roles of xin repeat-containing proteins in cardiac development, function, and disease

Qinchuan Wang, Jenny Li Chun Lin, Albert J. Erives, Cheng I. Lin, Jim Jung Ching Lin

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

21 Scopus citations


Since the discovery of Xin repeat-containing proteins in 1996, the importance of Xin proteins in muscle development, function, regeneration, and disease has been continuously implicated. Most Xin proteins are localized to myotendinous junctions of the skeletal muscle and also to intercalated discs (ICDs) of the heart. The Xin gene is only found in vertebrates, which are characterized by a true chambered heart. This suggests that the evolutionary origin of the Xin gene may have played a key role in vertebrate origins. Diverse vertebrates including mammals possess two paralogous genes, Xinα (or Xirp1) and Xinβ (or Xirp2), and this review focuses on the role of their encoded proteins in cardiac muscles. Complete loss of mouse Xinβ (mXinβ) results in the failure of forming ICD, severe growth retardation, and early postnatal lethality. Deletion of mouse Xinα (mXinα) leads to late-onset cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. Molecular studies have identified three classes of mXinα-interacting proteins: catenins, actin regulators/modulators, and ion-channel subunits. Thus, mXinα acts as a scaffolding protein modulating the N-cadherin-mediated adhesion and ion-channel surface expression. Xin expression is significantly upregulated in early stages of stressed hearts, whereas Xin expression is downregulated in failing hearts from various human cardiomyopathies. Thus, mutations in these Xin loci may lead to diverse cardiomyopathies and heart failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages40
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameInternational Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1937-6448


  • Cardiomyopathy with conduction defect
  • Cortactin
  • Intercalated disc formation
  • KChIP2
  • Xirp
  • β-Catenin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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