New approach to intracardiac hemodynamic measurements in small animals: Echo-guided percutaneous apical puncture

Kristian Eskesen, Niels T. Olsen, Veronica L. Dimaano, Aurelio Pinheiro, Peter Sogaard, Thomas Fritz-Hansen, Lars L. Sorensen, Theodore P. Abraham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objectives: Invasive measurements of intracardiac hemodynamics in animal models have allowed important advances in the understanding of cardiac disease. Currently they are performed either through a carotid arteriotomy or via a thoracotomy and apical insertion. Both of these techniques have disadvantages and are not conducive to repeated measurements. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a new technique for measuring intracardiac hemodynamics. Methods: In 13 male rats, hemodynamic measurements were performed using a new echocardiographically guided percutaneous apical technique. An intravenous catheter was percutaneously inserted into the left ventricle (LV) in the direction of the LV long axis. Through this catheter, a micromanometer-tipped pressure catheter was inserted, and invasive hemodynamic traces were recorded. After LV recordings, the pressure catheter was advanced into the aorta where pressures were obtained. In 11 rats, measurements were repeated after 1 week (n = 2), 2 weeks (n = 4), 3 weeks (n = 4), or 4 weeks (n = 1). In 3 rats, invasive measurements were performed using a carotid arteriotomy before the percutaneous technique. Results: Among the 13 rats subjected to the procedure, the survival rate was 85%. Of the 11 rats that had the procedure repeated, 3 died (27%). The mean differences ± SD when comparing the two techniques were 10 ±4 mm Hg for the LV end-systolic pressure and 1 ±1 mm Hg for the LV end-diastolic pressure. The mean procedure times were 21 ±3 and 6 ±1 minutes for the carotid and percutaneous techniques, respectively. Conclusions: We have successfully developed a percutaneous technique for insertion of LV microtip catheters in rats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1233-1238
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac instrumentation
  • Experimental models
  • Invasive hemodynamic measurements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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