Neuroprotection in the Striatum of Hypoxic-Ischemic Piglets by Simultaneous Inhibition of Dopamine D1 and Adenosine A2AReceptors

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Introduction: Striatal neurons of term newborns are highly vulnerable to hypoxia-ischemia (H-I). In a piglet model of H-I, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist and an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist alone preferentially protect striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, respectively. Here, we tested the hypothesis whether the combined treatment with SCH23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, and SCH58261, an A2A receptor antagonist, is more efficacious than individual D1 and A2A receptor antagonist treatment. Methods: Anesthetized newborn piglets were subjected to sham operation (n = 6) or 40 min of hypoxia and 7 min of airway occlusion. At 5 min of reoxygenation, piglets received the vehicle, SCH23390, SCH58261, or the combined treatment (n = 9 in each group). At 4 days of recovery, the number of viable neurons in the entire putamen was estimated by unbiased stereology. Results: Stereological results showed that sham-operated piglets had an estimated 2.9 × 106 neurons in the putamen, and the number of viable neurons in hypoxic-ischemic piglets was significantly reduced by 80% to 0.6 × 106/putamen. Treatment with SCH23390, SCH58261, and the combination increased the numbers of viable neurons to 1.4 × 106/putamen, 1.4 × 106/putamen, and 2.1 × 106/putamen, respectively. Notably, the combined treatment improved neuroprotection compared to individual therapy. Conclusion: We conclude that simultaneous inhibition of dopamine D1 receptors and adenosine A2A receptors saves more neurons than individual treatment in the highly vulnerable putamen of a large-animal neonatal H-I model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)354-360
Number of pages7
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2022


  • Adenosine Areceptor
  • Dopamine D1 receptor
  • Hypoxicischemic encephalopathy
  • Neuroprotection
  • Pig

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Biology


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