Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 in adults and children

Sung Min Cho, Nicole White, Lavienraj Premraj, Denise Battaglini, Jonathon Fanning, Jacky Suen, Gianluigi Li Bassi, John Fraser, Chiara Robba, Matthew Griffee, Bhagteshwar Singh, Barbara Wanjiru Citarella, Laura Merson, Tom Solomon, David Thomson, Ali Abbas, Nurul Najmee Abdulkadir, Ryuzo Abe, Laurent Abel, Lara AbsilSubhash Acharya, Andrew Acker, Diana Adrião, Saleh Al Ageel, Shakeel Ahmed, Kate Ainscough, Tharwat Aisa, Ali Ait Hssain, Younes Ait Tamlihat, Takako Akimoto, Ernita Akmal, Razi Alalqam, Tala Al-Dabbous, Senthilkumar Alegesan, Cynthia Alegre, Beatrice Alex, Kevin Alexandre, Abdulrahman Al-Fares, Huda Alfoudri, Imran Ali, Naseem Ali Shah, Kazali Enagnon Alidjnou, Jeffrey Aliudin, Qabas Alkhafajee, Clotilde Allavena, Nathalie Allou, Aneela Altaf, João Alves, Rita Alves, João Melo Alves, Maria Amaral, Nur Amira, Phoebe Ampaw, Roberto Andini, Claire Andrejak, Andrea Angheben, François Angoulvant, Severine Ansart, Sivanesen Anthonidass, Massimo Antonelli, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Ardiyan Apriyana, Irene Aragao, Francisco Arancibia, Carolline Araujo, Antonio Arcadipane, Patrick Archambault, Lukas Arenz, Jean Benoît Arlet, Christel Arnold-Day, Lovkesh Arora, Rakesh Arora, Elise Artaud-Macari, Diptesh Aryal, Angel Asensio, Muhammad Ashraf, Namra Asif, Mohammad Asim, Jean Baptiste Assie, Amirul Asyraf, Anika Atique, AM Udara Lakshan Attanyake, Johann Auchabie, Hugues Aumaitre, Adrien Auvet, Laurène Azemar, Cecile Azoulay, Benjamin Bach, Delphine Bachelet, Claudine Badr, Nadia Baig, J. Kenneth Baillie, Erica Bak, Agamemnon Bakakos, Nazreen Abu Bakar, Andriy Bal, Mohanaprasanth Balakrishnan, Valeria Balan, Firouze Bani-Sadr, Renata Barbalho, Wendy S. Barclay, Saef Umar Barnett, Michaela Barnikel, Audrey Barrelet, Cleide Barrigoto, Marie Bartoli, Joaquín Baruch, Romain Basmaci, Muhammad Fadhli Hassin Basri, Jules Bauer, Diego Fernando Bautista Rincon, Abigail Beane, Alexandra Bedossa, Ker Hong Bee, Husna Begum, Sylvie Behilill, Albertus Beishuizen, Aleksandr Beljantsev, David Bellemare, Anna Beltrame, Marine Beluze, Nicolas Benech, Lionel Eric Benjiman, Dehbia Benkerrou, Suzanne Bennett, Luís Bento, Jan Erik Berdal, Delphine Bergeaud, Hazel Bergin, Jose Luis Bernal Sobrino, Giulia Bertoli, Lorenzo Bertolino, Simon Bessis, Sybille Bevilcaqua, Karine Bezulier, Amar Bhatt, Krishna Bhavsar, Claudia Bianco, Farah Nadiah Bidin, Moirangthem Bikram Singh, Mohd Nazlin Bin Kamarudin, François Bissuel, Laurent Bitker, Jonathan Bitton, Pablo Blanco-Schweizer, Catherine Blier, Frank Bloos, Mathieu Blot, Filomena Boccia, Laetitia Bodenes, Alice Bogaarts, Debby Bogaert, Anne Helène Boivin, Pierre Adrien Bolze, François Bompart, Diogo Borges, Raphaël Borie, Hans Martin Bosse, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Lila Bouadma, Olivier Bouchaud, Sabelline Bouchez, Dounia Bouhmani, Damien Bouhour, Kevin Bouiller, Laurence Bouillet, Camile Bouisse, Anne Sophie Boureau, John Bourke, Maude Bouscambert, Aurore Bousquet, Jason Bouziotis, Bianca Boxma, Marielle Boyer-Besseyre, Maria Boylan, Fernando Augusto Bozza, Axelle Braconnier, Cynthia Braga, Timo Brandenburger, Filipa Brás Monteiro, Luca Brazzi, Patrick Breen, Dorothy Breen, Patrick Breen, Kathy Brickell, Shaunagh Browne, Nicolas Brozzi, Marjolein Brusse-Keizer, Nina Buchtele, Christian Buesaquillo, Marielle Buisson, Erlina Burhan, Aidan Burrell, Ingrid G. Bustos, Andre Cabie, Susana Cabral, Eder Caceres, Cyril Cadoz, Jose Andres Calvache, João Camões, Valentine Campana, Paul Campbell, Cecilia Canepa, Mireia Cantero, Pauline Caraux-Paz, Sheila Cárcel, Chiara Simona Cardellino, Sofia Cardoso, Filipe Cardoso, Filipa Cardoso, Nelson Cardoso, Simone Carelli, Nicolas Carlier, Thierry Carmoi, Gayle Carney, Inês Carqueja, Marie Christine Carret, François Martin Carrier, Ida Carroll, Gail Carson, Maire Laure Casanova, Mariana Cascão, Siobhan Casey, Jose Casimiro, Bailey Cassandra, Silvia Castañeda, Nidyanara Castanheira, Guylaine Castor-Alexandre, Henry Castrillón, Ivo Castro, Ana Catarino, François Xavier Catherine, Paolo Cattaneo, Roberta Cavalin, Giulio Giovanni Cavalli, Alexandros Cavayas, Minerva Cervantes-Gonzalez, Anissa Chair, Catherine Chakveatze, Adrienne Chan, Meera Chand, Christelle Chantalat Auger, Jean Marc Chapplain, Julie Chas, Mobin Chaudry, Jonathan Samuel Chávez Iñiguez, Anjellica Chen, Yih Sharng Chen, Matthew Pellan Cheng, Antoine Cheret, Thibault Chiarabini, Julian Chica, Suresh Kumar Chidambaram, Leong Chin Tho, Catherine Chirouze, Davide Chiumello, Bernard Cholley, Marie Charlotte Chopin, Ting Soo Chow, Hiu Jian Chua, Jonathan Chua, Jose Pedro Cidade, Jose Miguel Cisneros Herreros, Barbara Wanjiru Citarella, Anna Ciullo, Jennifer Clarke, Emma Clarke, Sara Clohisey, Perren J. Cobb, Cassidy Codan, Caitriona Cody, Alexandra Coelho, Megan Coles, Gwenhaël Colin, Michael Collins, Sebastiano Maria Colombo, Pamela Combs, Marie Connor, Anne Conrad, Sofía Contreras, Elaine Conway, Graham S. Cooke, Mary Copland, Hugues Cordel, Amanda Corley, Sabine Cornelis, Alexander Daniel Cornet, Arianne Joy Corpuz, Gregory Corvaisier, Emma Costigan, Camille Couffignal, Sandrine Couffin-Cadiergues, Roxane Courtois, Stephanie Cousse, Rachel Cregan, Sabine Croonen, Gloria Crowl, Jonathan Crump, Claudina Cruz, Juan Luis Cruz Berm, Jaime Cruz Rojo, Marc Csete, Ailbhe Cullen, Matthew Cummings, Gerard Curley, Elodie Curlier, Colleen Curran, Paula Custodio, Ana da Silva Filipe, Charlene Da Silveira, Al Awwab Dabaliz, Andrew Dagens, Darren Dahly, Heidi Dalton, Jo Dalton, Seamus Daly, Nick Daneman, Corinne Daniel, Emmanuelle A. Dankwa, Jorge Dantas, Frederick D'aragon, Gillian de Loughry, Etienne De Montmollin, Rafael Freitas de Oliveira França, Ana Isabel de Pinho Oliveira, Rosanna De Rosa, Thushan de Silva, Peter de Vries, Jillian Deacon, David Dean, Alexa Debard, Bianca Debenedictis, Marie Pierre Debray, Nathalie Decastro, William Dechert, Lauren Deconninck, Romain Decours, Eve Defous, Isabelle Delacroix, Eric Delaveuve, Karen Delavigne, Nathalie M. Delfos, Andrea Dell'amore, Christelle Delmas, Pierre Delobel, Corine Delsing, Elisa Demonchy, Emmanuelle Denis, Dominique Deplanque, Pieter Depuydt, Mehul Desai, Diane Descamps, Mathilde Desvallees, Santi Dewayanti, Alpha Diallo, Sylvain Diamantis, Andre Dias, Juan Jose Diaz, Priscila Diaz, Rodrigo Diaz, Kevin Didier, Jean Luc Diehl, Wim Dieperink, Jerôme Dimet, Vincent Dinot, Fara Diop, Alphonsine Diouf, Yael Dishon, Felix Djossou, Annemarie B. Docherty, Helen Doherty, Arjen M. Dondorp, Maria Donnelly, Christl A. Donnelly, Sean Donohue, Yoann Donohue, Chloe Donohue, Peter Doran, Celine Dorival, Eric D'ortenzio, James Joshua Douglas, Nathalie Dournon, Triona Downer, Joanne Downey, Mark Downing, Tom Drake, Aoife Driscoll, Claudio Duarte Fonseca, Vincent Dubee, François Dubos, Alexandre Ducancelle, Toni Duculan, Susanne Dudman, Paul Dunand, Jake Dunning, Mathilde Duplaix, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Lucian Durham Iii, Bertrand Dussol, Juliette Duthoit, Xavier Duval, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise, Sim Choon Ean, Marco Echeverria-Villalobos, Siobhan Egan, Carla Eira, Mohammed El Sanharawi, Subbarao Elapavaluru, Brigitte Elharrar, Jacobien Ellerbroek, Philippine Eloy, Tarek Elshazly, Isabelle Enderle, Chan Chee Eng, Ilka Engelmann, Vincent Enouf, Olivier Epaulard, Martina Escher, Mariano Esperatti, Helène Esperou, Marina Esposito-Farese, João Estevão, Manuel Etienne, Nadia Ettalhaoui, Anna Greti Everding, Mirjam Evers, Marc Fabre, Isabelle Fabre, Amna Faheem, Arabella Fahy, Cameron J. Fairfield, Komal Fareed, Pedro Faria, Ahmed Farooq, Hanan Fateena, Arie Zainul Fatoni, Karine Faure, Raphaël Favory, Mohamed Fayed, Niamh Feely, Laura Feeney, Jorge Fernandes, Marília Andreia Fernandes, Susana Fernandes, François Xavier Ferrand, Eglantine Ferrand Devouge, Joana Ferrão, Mário Ferraz, Sílvia Ferreira, Benigno Ferreira, Ricard Ferrer-Roca, Nicolas Ferriere, Celine Ficko, Claudia Figueiredo-Mello, Juan Fiorda, Thomas Flament, Clara Flateau, Tom Fletcher, Letizia Lucia Florio, Deirdre Flynn, Claire Foley, Jean Foley, Tatiana Fonseca, Patricia Fontela, Simon Forsyth, Denise Foster, Giuseppe Foti, Erwan Fourn, Robert A. Fowler, Marianne Fraher, Diego Franch-Llasat, Christophe Fraser, Marcela Vieira Freire, Ana Freitas Ribeiro, Ricardo Fritz, Stephanie Fry, Nora Fuentes, Masahiro Fukuda, Valerie Gaborieau, Rostane Gaci, Massimo Gagliardi, Jean Charles Gagnard, Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Sergio Gaião, Linda Gail Skeie, Phil Gallagher, Carrol Gamble, Yasmin Gani, Arthur Garan, Rebekha Garcia, Noelia García Barrio, Esteban Garcia-Gallo, Denis Garot, Valerie Garrait, Basanta Gauli, Nathalie Gault, Aisling Gavin, Anatoliy Gavrylov, Alexandre Gaymard, Johannes Gebauer, Eva Geraud, Louis Gerbaud Morlaes, Nuno Germano, Jade Ghosn, Marco Giani, Jess Gibson, Tristan Gigante, Morgane Gilg, Elaine Gilroy, Guillermo Giordano, Michelle Girvan, Valerie Gissot, Daniel Glikman, Eric Gnall, Geraldine Goco, François Goehringer, Siri Goepel, Jean Christophe Goffard, Jin Yi Goh, Jonathan Golob, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Marie Gominet, Bronner P. Gonçalves, Alicia Gonzalez, Patricia Gordon, Isabelle Gorenne, Laure Goubert, Cecile Goujard, Tiphaine Goulenok, Margarite Grable, Jeronimo Graf, Edward Wilson Grandin, Pascal Granier, Giacomo Grasselli, Christopher A. Green, Courtney Greene, William Greenhalf, Segolène Greffe, Domenico Luca Grieco, Matthew Griffee, Fiona Griffiths, Ioana Grigoras, Albert Groenendijk, Anja Grosse Lordemann, Heidi Gruner, Yusing Gu, Jeremie Guedj, Martin Guego, Dewi Guellec, Anne Marie Guerguerian, Daniela Guerreiro, Romain Guery, Anne Guillaumot, Laurent Guilleminault, Maisa Guimarães de Castro, Thomas Guimard, Marieke Haalboom, Daniel Haber, Hannah Habraken, Ali Hachemi, Nadir Hadri, Olena Haidash, Fakhir Haidri, Sheeba Hakak, Adam Hall, Matthew Hall, Sophie Halpin, Jawad Hameed, Ansley Hamer, Rebecca Hamidfar, Terese Hammond, Lim Yuen Han, Rashan Haniffa, Kok Wei Hao, Hayley Hardwick, Samuel Bernard Ekow Harrison, Ewen M. Harrison, Janet Harrison, Junaid Hashmi, Madiha Hashmi, Muhammad Hayat, Ailbhe Hayes, Leanne Hays, Jan Heerman, Lars Heggelund, Ross Hendry, Martina Hennessy, Aquiles Henriquez-Trujillo, Maxime Hentzien, Jaime Hernandez-Montfort, Andrew Hershey, Liv Hesstvedt, Astarini Hidayah, Eibhilin Higgins, Dawn Higgins, Rita Hinchion, Samuel Hinton, Hiroaki Hiraiwa, Hikombo Hitoto, Yi Bin Ho, Antonia Ho, Alexandre Hoctin, Isabelle Hoffmann, Wei Han Hoh, Oscar Hoiting, Rebecca Holt, Jan Cato Holter, Peter Horby, Juan Pablo Horcajada, Koji Hoshino, Ikram Houas, Catherine L. Hough, Jimmy Ming Yang Hsu, Jean Sebastien Hulot, Iqbal Hussain, Samreen Ijaz, Hajnal Gabriela Illes, Patrick Imbert, Mohammad Imran, Rana Imran Sikander, Aftab Imtiaz, Hugo Inácio, Carmen Infante Dominguez, Yun Sii Ing, Elias Iosifidis, Sarah Isgett, Tiago Isidoro, Nadiah Ismail, Margaux Isnard, Junji Itai, Daniel Ivulich, Danielle Jaafar, Salma Jaafoura, Julien Jabot, Clare Jackson, Nina Jamieson, Pierre Jaquet, Coline Jaud-Fischer, Stephane Jaureguiberry, Florence Jego, Anilawati Mat Jelani, Synne Jenum, Ruth Jimbo-Sotomayor, Ong Yiaw Joe, Ruth N.Jorge García, Cedric Joseph, Mark Joseph, Swosti Joshi, Merce Jourdain, Philippe Jouvet, Anna Jung, Dafsah Juzar, Ouifiya Kafif, Florentia Kaguelidou, Neerusha Kaisbain, Thavamany Kaleesvran, Sabina Kali, Smaragdi Kalomoiri, Muhammad Aisar Ayadi Kamaluddin, Zul Amali Che Kamaruddin, Nadiah Kamarudin, Darshana Hewa Kandamby, Chris Kandel, Kong Yeow Kang, Ravi Kant, Darakhshan Kanwal, Pratap Karpayah, Christiana Kartsonaki, Daisuke Kasugai, Anant Kataria, Kevin Katz, Simreen Kaur Johal, Christy Kay, Hannah Keane, Seán Keating, Claire Kelly, Yvelynne Kelly, Andrea Kelly, Niamh Kelly, Aoife Kelly, Sadie Kelly, Maeve Kelsey, Ryan Kennedy, Kalynn Kennon, Maeve Kernan, Younes Kerroumi, Sharma Keshav, Imrana Khalid, Osama Khalid, Antoine Khalil, Coralie Khan, Irfan Khan, Quratul Ain Khan, Sushil Khanal, Abid Khatak, Amin Khawaja, Michelle E. Kho, Ryan Khoo, Denisa Khoo, Saye Khoo, Nasir Khoso, Khor How Kiat, Yuri Kida, Peter Kiiza, Anders Benjamin Kildal, Antoine Kimmoun, Detlef Kindgen-Milles, Nobuya Kitamura, Paul Klenerman, Rob Klont, Gry Kloumann Bekken, Stephen R. Knight, Robin Kobbe, Chamira Kodippily, Malte Kohns Vasconcelos, Sabin Koirala, ISARIC Collaborator Korten, Caroline Kosgei, Arsène Kpangon, Karolina Krawczyk, Vinothini Krishnan, Oksana Kruglova, Deepali Kumar, Ganesh Kumar, Mukesh Kumar, Pavan Kumar Vecham, Dinesh Kuriakose, Ethan Kurtzman, Demetrios Kutsogiannis, Galyna Kutsyna, Konstantinos Kyriakoulis, Marie Lachatre, Marie Lacoste, John G. Laffey, Marie Lagrange, Fabrice Laine, Olivier Lairez, Antonio Lalueza, Marc Lambert, François Lamontagne, Marie Langelot-Richard, Vincent Langlois, Eka Yudha Lantang, Marina Lanza, Cedric Laouenan, Samira Laribi, Delphine Lariviere, Stephane Lasry, Naveed Latif, Odile Launay, Didier Laureillard, Yoan Lavie-Badie, Andy Law, Teresa Lawrence, Cassie Lawrence, Minh Le, Clement Le Bihan, Cyril Le Bris, Georges Le Falher, Lucie Le Fevre, Quentin Le Hingrat, Marion Le Marechal, Soizic Le Mestre, Gwenaël Le Moal, Vincent Le Moing, Herve Le Nagard, Paul Le Turnier, Ema Leal, Marta Leal Santos, Todd C. Lee, Heng Gee Lee, Biing Horng Lee, Yi Lin Lee, Su Hwan Lee, James Lee, Gary Leeming, Laurent Lefebvre, Benedicte Lefebvre, Benjamin Lefevre, Sylvie Legac, Jean Daniel Lelievre, François Lellouche, Adrien Lemaignen, Veronique Lemee, Anthony Lemeur, Gretchen Lemmink, Ha Sha Lene, Jenny Lennon, Rafael León, Marc Leone, Michela Leone, Quentin Lepiller, François Xavier Lescure, Olivier Lesens, Mathieu Lesouhaitier, Amy Lester-Grant, Yves Levy, Bruno Levy, Claire Levy-Marchal, Erwan L'her, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Ali Liaquat, Geoffrey Liegeon, Kah Chuan Lim, Wei Shen Lim, Chantre Lima, Lim Lina, Bruno Lina, Andreas Lind, Guillaume Lingas, Sylvie Lion-Daolio, Samantha Lissauer, Keibun Liu, Marine Livrozet, Patricia Lizotte, Antonio Loforte, Navy Lolong, Leong Chee Loon, Diogo Lopes, Anthony L. Loschner, Paul Loubet, Bouchra Loufti, Guillame Louis, Silvia Lourenco, Lee Lee Low, Marije Lowik, Jia Shyi Loy, Jean Christophe Lucet, Carlos Lumbreras Bermejo, Carlos M. Luna, Olguta Lungu, Liem Luong, Nestor Luque, Dominique Luton, Nilar Lwin, Ruth Lyons, Olavi Maasikas, Oryane Mabiala, Moïse Machado, Gabriel Macheda, Guillermo Maestro de la Calle, Rafael Mahieu, Sophie Mahy, Ana Raquel Maia, Lars S. Maier, Mylène Maillet, Thomas Maitre, Maximilian Malfertheiner, Nadia Malik, Paddy Mallon, Fernando Maltez, Denis Malvy, Victoria Manda, Laurent Mandelbrot, Julie Mankikian, Edmund Manning, Aldric Manuel, Ceila Maria Sant Ana Malaque, Flávio Marino, Daniel Marino, Samuel Markowicz, Ana Marques, Catherine Marquis, Brian Marsh, Laura Marsh, Megan Marshal, John Marshall, Celina Turchi Martelli, Emily Martin, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Martin Martinot, João Martins, Ana Martins, Nuno Martins, Caroline Martins Rego, Gennaro Martucci, Olga Martynenko, Eva Miranda Marwali, Marsilla Marzukie, David Maslove, Sabina Mason, Sobia Masood, Basri Mat Nor, Moshe Matan, Meghena Mathew, Daniel Mathieu, Mathieu Mattei, Romans Matulevics, Laurence Maulin, Michael Maxwell, Thierry Mazzoni, Natalie Mc Evoy, Lisa Mc Sweeney, Colin Mcarthur, Anne Mccarthy, Aine Mccarthy, Colin Mccloskey, Rachael Mcconnochie, Sherry Mcdermott, Sarah E. Mcdonald, Aine Mcelroy, Samuel Mcelwee, Victoria Mceneany, Allison Mcgeer, Chris Mckay, Johnny Mckeown, Kenneth A. Mclean, Paul Mcnally, Bairbre Mcnicholas, Elaine Mcpartlan, Edel Meaney, Cecile Mear-Passard, Maggie Mechlin, Maqsood Meher, Ferruccio Mele, Luis Melo, Joao Joao Mendes, Ogechukwu Menkiti, Kusum Menon, France Mentre, Alexander J. Mentzer, Noemie Mercier, Emmanuelle Mercier, Antoine Merckx, Mayka Mergeay-Fabre, Blake Mergler, Laura Merson, António Mesquita, Osama Metwally, Agnès Meybeck, Dan Meyer, Alison M. Meynert, Vanina Meysonnier, Amina Meziane, Mehdi Mezidi, Celine Michelanglei, Isabelle Michelet, Vladislav Mihnovit, Hugo Miranda-Maldonado, Nor Arisah Misnan, Tahira Jamal Mohamed, Nik Nur Eliza Mohamed, Asma Moin, David Molina, Elena Molinos, Brenda Molloy, Mary Mone, Agostinho Monteiro, Claudia Montes, Giorgia Montrucchio, Shona C. Moore, Sarah Moore, Lina Morales Cely, Lucia Moro, Ben Morton, Catherine Motherway, Ana Motos, Hugo Mouquet, Clara Mouton Perrot, Julien Moyet, Aisha Kalsoom Mufti, Ng Yong Muh, Dzawani Muhamad, Jimmy Mullaert, Fredrik Müller, Karl Erik Müller, Syed Muneeb, Nadeem Munir, Aisling Murphy, Lorna Murphy, Aisling Murphy, Marlène Murris, Srinivas Murthy, Himed Musaab, Himasha Muvindi, Gugapriyaa Muyandy, Dimitra Melia Myrodia, Farah Nadia Mohd-Hanafiah, Dave Nagpal, Alex Nagrebetsky, Nageswaran Narayanan, Rashid Nasim Khan, Nadège Neant, Raul Neto, Emily Neumann, Pauline Yeung Ng, Wing Yiu Ng, Anthony Nghi, Duc Nguyen, Orna Ni Choileain, Niamh Ni Leathlobhair, Alistair Nichol, Prompak Nitayavardhana, Nurul Amani Mohd Noordin, Marion Noret, Nurul Faten Izzati Norharizam, Lisa Norman, Mahdad Noursadeghi, Karolina Nowicka, Saad Nseir, Jose I. Nunez, Nurnaningsih Nurnaningsih, Elsa Nyamankolly, Fionnuala O. Brien, Annmarie O. Callaghan, Annmarie O'callaghan, Giovanna Occhipinti, Derbrenn Oconnor, Max O'donnell, Tawnya Ogston, Takayuki Ogura, Sophie O'halloran, Katie O'hearn, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Agnieszka Oldakowska, João Oliveira, Larissa Oliveira, Piero L. Olliaro, David S.Y. Ong, Jee Yan Ong, Wilna Oosthuyzen, Anne Opavsky, Peter Openshaw, Saijad Orakzai, Claudia Milena Orozco-Chamorro, Jamel Ortoleva, Javier Osatnik, Linda O'shea, Miriam O'sullivan, Siti Zubaidah Othman, Nadia Ouamara, Rachida Ouissa, Eric Oziol, Maïder Pagadoy, Justine Pages, Mario Palacios, Amanda Palacios, Massimo Palmarini, Giovanna Panarello, Prasan Kumar Panda, Hem Paneru, Lai Hui Pang, Mauro Panigada, Nathalie Pansu, Aurelie Papadopoulos, Rachael Parke, Melissa Parker, Briseida Parra, Taha Pasha, Jeremie Pasquier, Bruno Pastene, Fabian Patauner, Mohan Dass Pathmanathan, Luís Patrão, Patricia Patricio, Juliette Patrier, Lisa Patterson, Rajyabardhan Pattnaik, Mical Paul, Christelle Paul, Jorge Paulos, William A. Paxton, Jean François Payen, Kalaiarasu Peariasamy, Miguel Pedrera Jimenez, Florent Peelman, Nathan Peiffer-Smadja, Vincent Peigne, Mare Pejkovska, Paolo Pelosi, Ithan D. Peltan, Rui Pereira, Daniel Perez, Luis Periel, Thomas Perpoint, Antonio Pesenti, Vincent Pestre, Lenka Petrou, Michele Petrovic, Ventzislava Petrov-Sanchez, Frank Olav Pettersen, Gilles Peytavin, Scott Pharand, Walter Picard, Olivier Picone, Carola Pierobon, Djura Piersma, Carlos Pimentel, Raquel Pinto, Catarina Pires, Isabelle Pironneau, Lionel Piroth, Riinu Pius, Laurent Plantier, Hon Shen Png, Julien Poissy, Ryadh Pokeerbux, Maria Pokorska-Spiewak, Sergio Poli, Georgios Pollakis, Diane Ponscarme, Jolanta Popielska, Andra Maris Post, Douwe F. Postma, Pedro Povoa, Diana Póvoas, Jeff Powis, Sofia Prapa, Sebastien Preau, Christian Prebensen, Jean Charles Preiser, Anton Prinssen, Mark G. Pritchard, Gamage Dona Dilanthi Priyadarshani, Lucia Proença, Sravya Pudota, Oriane Puechal, Bambang Pujo Semedi, Mathew Pulicken, Gregory Purcell, Luisa Quesada, Vilmaris Quinones-Cardona, Víctor Quirós González, Else Quist-Paulsen, Mohammed Quraishi, Christian Rabaud, Ebenezer Rabindrarajan, Aldo Rafael, Marie Rafiq, Rozanah Abd Rahman, Ahmad Kashfi Haji Ab Rahman, Arsalan Rahutullah, Fernando Rainieri, Giri Shan Rajahram, Pratheema Ramachandran, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan, Ahmad Afiq Ramli, Blandine Rammaert, Grazielle Viana Ramos, Asim Rana, Ritika Ranjan, Christophe Rapp, Aasiyah Rashan, Thalha Rashan, Ghulam Rasheed, Menaldi Rasmin, Indrek Rätsep, Cornelius Rau, Tharmini Ravi, Ali Raza, Andre Real, Stanislas Rebaudet, Sarah Redl, Brenda Reeve, Attaur Rehman, Liadain Reid, Dag Henrik Reikvam, Renato Reis, Jonathan Remppis, Martine Remy, Hongru Ren, Hanna Renk, Anne Sophie Resseguier, Matthieu Revest, Oleksa Rewa, Luis Felipe Reyes, Tiago Reyes, Maria Ines Ribeiro, David Richardson, Denise Richardson, Laurent Richier, Siti Nurul Atikah Ahmad Ridzuan, Jordi Riera, Ana L. Rios, Asgar Rishu, Patrick Rispal, Karine Risso, Nicholas Rizer, Chiara Robba, Andre Roberto, Stephanie Roberts, David L. Robertson, Olivier Robineau, Ferran Roche-Campo, Paola Rodari, Simão Rodeia, Bernhard Roessler, Pierre Marie Roger, Emmanuel Roilides, Amanda Rojek, Juliette Romaru, Roberto Roncon-Albuquerque, Melanie Roriz, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Michael Rose, Dorothea Rosenberger, Nurul Hidayah Mohammad Roslan, Andrea Rossanese, Matteo Rossetti, Benedicte Rossignol, Patrick Rossignol, Stella Rousset, Carine Roy, Benoît Roze, Desy Rusmawatiningtyas, Clark D. Russell, Maria Ryan, Maeve Ryan, Steffi Ryckaeert, Mazankowski Heart Institute Ryckaert, Aleksander Rygh Holten, Isabela Saba, Sairah Sadaf, Valla Sahraei, Maximilien Saint-Gilles, Pranya Sakiyalak, Nawal Salahuddin, Leonardo Salazar, Jodat Saleem, Gabriele Sales, Stephane Sallaberry, Charlotte Salmon Gandonniere, Helène Salvator, Olivier Sanchez, Angel Sanchez-Miralles, Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu, Gyan Sandhu, Zulfiqar Sandhu, Pierre François Sandrine, Oana Sandulescu, Marlene Santos, Shirley Sarfo-Mensah, Bruno Sarmento Banheiro, Benjamine Sarton, Sree Satyapriya, Rumaisah Satyawati, Egle Saviciute, Parthena Savvidou, Yen Tsen Saw, Justin Schaffer, Tjard Schermer, Arnaud Scherpereel, Marion Schneider, Stephan Schroll, Michael Schwameis, Janet T. Scott, James Scott-Brown, Nicholas Sedillot, Tamara Seitz, Jaganathan Selvanayagam, Mageswari Selvarajoo, Caroline Semaille, Malcolm G. Semple, Rasidah Bt Senian, Eric Senneville, Claudia Sepulveda, Filipa Sequeira, Tânia Sequeira, Ary Serpa Neto, Pablo Serrano Balazote, Ellen Shadowitz, Syamin Asyraf Shahidan, Mohammad Shamsah, Shaikh Sharjeel, Pratima Sharma, Catherine A. Shaw, Victoria Shaw, Ashraf Sheharyar, Haixia Shi, Mohiuddin Shiekh, Nobuaki Shime, Keiki Shimizu, Sally Shrapnel, Hoi Ping Shum, Nassima Si Mohammed, Ng Yong Siang, Jeanne Sibiude, Atif Siddiqui, Louise Sigfrid, Piret Sillaots, Catarina Silva, Rogerio Silva, Maria Joao Silva, Benedict Sim Lim Heng, Wai Ching Sin, Punam Singh, Budha Charan Singh, Pompini Agustina Sitompul, Karisha Sivam, Vegard Skogen, Sue Smith, Benjamin Smood, Coilin Smyth, Michelle Smyth, Morgane Snacken, Dominic So, Tze Vee Soh, Emily Somers, Agnès Sommet, Rima Song, Myung Jin Song, Tae Song, Jack Song Chia, Azlan Mat Soom, Alberto Sotto, Edouard Soum, Marta Sousa, Ana Chora Sousa, Maria Sousa Uva, Vicente Souza-Dantas, Alexandra Sperry, B. P.Sanka Ruwan Sri Darshana, Shiranee Sriskandan, Sarah Stabler, Thomas Staudinger, Stephanie Susanne Stecher, Trude Steinsvik, Ymkje Stienstra, Birgitte Stiksrud, Eva Stolz, Amy Stone, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Anca Streinu-Cercel, Samantha Strudwick, Ami Stuart, David Stuart, Gabriel Suen, Jacky Y. Suen, Asfia Sultana, Charlotte Summers, Dubravka Supic, Deepashankari Suppiah, Magdalena Surovcová, Sarah Syahrin, Konstantinos Syrigos, Jaques Sztajnbok, Konstanty Szuldrzynski, Shirin Tabrizi, Fabio S. Taccone, Lysa Tagherset, Shahdattul Mawarni Taib, Ewa Talarek, Sara Taleb, Jelmer Talsma, Maria Lawrensia Tampubolon, Kim Keat Tan, Yan Chyi Tan, Taku Tanaka, Hayato Taniguchi, Huda Taqdees, Arshad Taqi, Coralie Tardivon, Pierre Tattevin, M. Azhari Taufik, Hassan Tawfik, Richard S. 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Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Different neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults and children and their impact have not been well characterized. We aimed to determine the prevalence of neurological manifestations and in-hospital complications among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and ascertain differences between adults and children. We conducted a prospective multicentre observational study using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) cohort across 1507 sites worldwide from 30 January 2020 to 25 May 2021. Analyses of neurological manifestations and neurological complications considered unadjusted prevalence estimates for predefined patient subgroups, and adjusted estimates as a function of patient age and time of hospitalization using generalized linear models. Overall, 161 239 patients (158 267 adults; 2972 children) hospitalized with COVID-19 and assessed for neurological manifestations and complications were included. In adults and children, the most frequent neurological manifestations at admission were fatigue (adults: 37.4%; children: 20.4%), altered consciousness (20.9%; 6.8%), myalgia (16.9%; 7.6%), dysgeusia (7.4%; 1.9%), anosmia (6.0%; 2.2%) and seizure (1.1%; 5.2%). In adults, the most frequent in-hospital neurological complications were stroke (1.5%), seizure (1%) and CNS infection (0.2%). Each occurred more frequently in intensive care unit (ICU) than in non-ICU patients. In children, seizure was the only neurological complication to occur more frequently in ICU versus non-ICU (7.1% versus 2.3%, P < 0.001). Stroke prevalence increased with increasing age, while CNS infection and seizure steadily decreased with age. There was a dramatic decrease in stroke over time during the pandemic. Hypertension, chronic neurological disease and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were associated with increased risk of stroke. Altered consciousness was associated with CNS infection, seizure and stroke. All in-hospital neurological complications were associated with increased odds of death. The likelihood of death rose with increasing age, especially after 25 years of age. In conclusion, adults and children have different neurological manifestations and in-hospital complications associated with COVID-19. Stroke risk increased with increasing age, while CNS infection and seizure risk decreased with age.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1648-1661
Number of pages14
JournalBrain
Volume146
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2023

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • encephalitis
  • meningitis
  • neurological complication
  • seizure
  • stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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