Neuroimaging-based Individualized Prediction of Cognition and Behavior for Mental Disorders and Health: Methods and Promises

Jing Sui, Rongtao Jiang, Juan Bustillo, Vince Calhoun

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The neuroimaging community has witnessed a paradigm shift in biomarker discovery from using traditional univariate brain mapping approaches to multivariate predictive models, allowing the field to move toward a translational neuroscience era. Regression-based multivariate models (hereafter “predictive modeling”) provide a powerful and widely used approach to predict human behavior with neuroimaging features. These studies maintain a focus on decoding individual differences in a continuously behavioral phenotype from neuroimaging data, opening up an exciting opportunity to describe the human brain at the single-subject level. In this survey, we provide an overview of recent studies that utilize machine learning approaches to identify neuroimaging predictors over the past decade. We first review regression-based approaches and highlight connectome-based predictive modeling, which has grown in popularity in recent years. Next, we systematically describe recent representative studies using these tools in the context of cognitive function, symptom severity, personality traits, and emotion processing. Finally, we highlight a few challenges related to combining multimodal data, longitudinal prediction, external validations, and the employment of deep learning methods that have emerged from our review of the existing literature, as well as present some promising and challenging future directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)818-828
Number of pages11
JournalBiological psychiatry
Issue number11
StatePublished - Dec 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry


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