Men with neurogenic bladder (NGB) often have concomitant erectile dysfunction and may be considered for inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) placement. However, it is unclear if NGB is a risk factor for complications associated with IPP placement. The aim of this study is to compare surgical outcomes after IPP placement in a contemporary cohort of patients with NGB to that of a non-neurogenic control group. To accomplish this, consecutive records of patients who underwent IPP implantation between 2007 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a known neurologic lesion and documented NGB by clinical or urodynamic criteria were compared with a non-neurogenic control group of men with erectile dysfunction. We found that patients in the NGB cohort were younger (median age 48 vs. 62 years, p < 0.001) and less likely to void spontaneously prior to surgery (3% vs. 97%, p < 0.001). The most common cause for NGB was spinal cord injury (46%). There was a 24.3% overall rate of complication (infection, erosion, or mechanical failure) in the NGB cohort compared with a 7.5% rate in the non-neurogenic control group (p = 0.001). On multivariate logistic regression modeling, NGB (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.13–10.71; p = 0.03) was independently associated with risk of IPP complication. First time penile prosthesis was associated with lower risk of IPP complication (OR 0.25 95% CI 0.09–0.71; p = 0.01). In conclusion, patients with NGB are at increased risk for complications after IPP placement. Patients should be counseled accordingly, and all efforts should be made to stabilize bladder function prior to surgery.
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