Neurodegenerative disease and the neuroimmune axis (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and viral infections)

Garth E. Ringheim, Katherine Conant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


The appearance of activated immune cells and the accumulation of inflammation-associated proteins are common phenomena associated with neurodegenerative diseases. These inflammatory components of central nervous system (CNS) diseases have most often been described in the context of an immune response to damage and cell loss already occurring in the affected brain area. There has, however, been a renewed interest in how the neuroimmune axis might itself be involved in the etiology of these neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in cases involving slow, chronic, progressive neuropathology. This review addresses immune activation in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and brain viral infections that may be causative of, rather than responsive to, the observed neuronal loss in these pathologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-49
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Feb 2004


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroimmune axis
  • Parkinson's disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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