Rett syndrome (RS), a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology occurring almost exclusively in females, is characterized by autistic-like behavior, motor dysfunction, loss of language skills, dementia, and microcephaly. This study is a follow-up and extension of a previously reported neuroimaging study of patients with RS. We replicated previously reported findings with a larger patient population, and the volumetric MRI analysis was extended to include an analysis of neuroanatomy of the posterior fossa. Twenty girls with RS were compared with individually age- and gender- matched normal controls. Patients with RS showed global reduction in gray- and white-matter volumes. The prefrontal, posterior-frontal, and anterior- temporal regions showed the largest bilateral decrease in gray-matter volume, whereas white-matter volume was uniformly reduced throughout the brain. We found confirmation for the preferential reduction in caudate nucleus volume. However, we observed no preferential reduction in midbrain volume despite a preferential reduction in the midsagittal area of this region. We also present an individual case comparison between monozygotic twins discordant for RS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology