Neuro-Visual and Vestibular Manifestations of Concussion and Mild TBI

Nicholas E.F. Hac, Daniel R. Gold

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is a major cause of disability. Vestibular and visual dysfunction following concussion is common and can negatively affect patients’ well-being and prolong recovery. Etiologies of visual and vestibular symptoms are numerous, including ocular, neuro-ophthalmic, otologic, and neuro-vestibular conditions. Some etiologies are benign and may be treatable, while others are potentially vision or life-threatening, making a focused history and examination essential. This review offers an approach to the evaluation and treatment of the most common neuro-visual and vestibular impairments that may result from concussion. Recent Findings: Treatment of concussion including exercise, computerized programs, transcranial magnetic stimulation, gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and nanoparticles has shown promise. Summary: Many novel therapies are in the pipework for visual and vestibular recovery after concussion; however, the treatment mainstay remains therapy and evaluation for co-existing diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)219-228
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent neurology and neuroscience reports
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Concussion
  • Dizziness
  • Post-concussive syndrome
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Vestibular disorder
  • Visual disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • General Neuroscience


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